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Literature - EC: L.N.2.5.6

Literature - EC: L.N.2.5.6

Continuum of Activities

Continuum of Activities

The list below represents a continuum of activities: resources categorized by Standard/Eligible Content that teachers may use to move students toward proficiency. Using LEA curriculum and available materials and resources, teachers can customize the activity statements/questions for classroom use.

This continuum of activities offers:

  • Instructional activities designed to be integrated into planned lessons
  • Questions/activities that grow in complexity
  • Opportunities for differentiation for each student’s level of performance

Grade Levels


Course, Subject

English Language Arts, Literature


    1. Quote one or two lines that best state the claim of a nonfiction argumentative text and then summarize this claim in your own words.

    2. Identify the main points an author makes in order to defend this claim.

    3. Construct a chart that maps out the main points in defense of a claim. Then, in space between each point, explain the relationship of one point to another.

    4. For each of the main points in an argument, identify and explain the strategies the author uses to defend each point.

    5. Re-write an author’s argument in an argumentative nonfiction text in the form of an outline. Include each point in defense of the main argument and the most relevant details that support each point.

    6. Develop a logical counter argument to the author’s original claim in an argumentative nonfiction text.

Answer Key/Rubric

  1. Students are able to identify one or two key lines that best summarize the major claim of a argumentative text. Students identify the major claim, and do not confuse it with minor claims. Students are able to paraphrase the major claim in their own words in order to demonstrate their understanding of that claim.

  2. Students accurately identify the minor claims in an argumentative text. They do not confuse supporting details with minor claims.

  3. Students use a graphic organizer to lay out the minor claims of an argumentative text. Using visuals such as arrows, equal signs or other indicators, students mark and then explain the relationship of one minor claim to the next. Students see if one claim leads to another, or is another example of the same idea, or shows a similar/contrasting idea. To extend the activity, have students apply the concepts of deduction and induction to the minor claims.

  4. Students identify how authors employ rhetorical strategies in defending the minor claims in an argumentative text.  For example, students identify logical thinking, emotional appeals, the use of examples/data, drawing a comparison/metaphor, explaining cause/effect, or any other rhetorical strategy. Students interpret how authors make individual minor claims as part of confirming a major claim.

  5. Students break down and simply an argumentative nonfiction text into an outline. Teachers may use any outline format, guiding students to identify the major and minor claims and the most important supporting details. Students reverse the writing process in order to see how argumentative nonfiction texts are purposefully organized.

  6. Students use other background knowledge or different interpretations of the author’s minor claims in order to construct a claim that counter-argues the author’s original major claim.

Suggested Rubric:  This rubric may be used to assess a student’s overall mastery of the standard or eligible content.

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