Lesson Plan

Lewis Dot Structures and Covalent Bonding

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Objectives

In this lesson, students will learn how atoms bond with one another by sharing their electrons to form a covalent bond. They will explore examples of covalent molecules by constructing Lewis dot structures, which show how the valence electrons are shared within the molecules. Students will:

  • be able to identify which molecules are covalent (nonmetal with nonmetal for this lesson).

  • draw Lewis dot structures and electron dot structures for a given covalent molecule.

  • determine when molecules will form single, double, or triple bonds.

  • identify the number of valence electrons on given atoms.

  • apply the octet rule to Lewis dot structures.


Essential Questions

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Vocabulary

  • Intermolecular Forces: Forces of attraction between molecules.

  • Hydrocarbon: A covalently bonded molecule primarily made from hydrogen and carbon atoms.

  • Covalent Bond: A chemical bond that involves atoms sharing their valence electrons.

  • Valence Electrons: Electrons in the outermost shell that participate with the chemical bonding.

  • Lone Electron Pairs: Valence electrons that are not shared in a covalent bond.

  • Lewis Dot Structures (electron dot diagrams): Diagrams that show electrons, bonding, and lone pairs of electrons.

  • Molecule: Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

  • Diatomic Molecule: A molecule made up of two atoms covalently bonded

  • Valence Shell: The outer electron shell of any atom.

  • Ionization Energy: The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a specific atom.

  • Octet Rule: States that most atoms tend to combine so that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells.


Duration

45 minutes/1 class period


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