Describe how unbalanced forces acting on an object change its velocity.
Analyze how observations of displacement, velocity, and acceleration provide necessary and sufficient evidence for the existence of forces.
Describe how energy can be changed from one form to another (transformed) as it moves through a system or transferred from one system to another system.
Differentiate among convection, conduction, and radiation.
Explain why heat energy consists of the random motion and vibrations of the particles of matter.
Explain how electrical current is produced by the flow of electrons.
Explain and demonstrate how electric current produces magnetic forces and how moving magnets produce electric current.
Demonstrate that visible light is a mixture of many different colors.
Explain the construct of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Describe how sound and light energy are transmitted by waves.
Demonstrate that heat is often produced as energy is transformed through a system.
Demonstrate how the transfer of heat energy causes temperature changes.
- Understand how theories are developed.
- Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations and evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
- Design and conduct a scientific investigation and understand that current scientific knowledge guides scientific investigations.
- Describe relationships using inference and prediction.
- Use appropriate tools and technologies to gather, analyze, and interpret data and understand that it enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.
- Develop descriptions, explanations, and models using evidence and understand that these emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and are based on scientific principles, models, and theories.
- Analyze alternative explanations and understanding that science advances through legitimate skepticism.
- Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
- Understand that scientific investigations may result in new ideas for study, new methods, or procedures for an investigation or new technologies to improve data collection.