- Activity 1, Day 1
Begin this lesson by placing students in pairs
sitting on the ground facing one another. Note: Select two
students to model how the pairs are to be seated. Ask students to
face each other and place their hands chest high with palms facing
their partner. Each student places his/her palms on the other’s and
at your signal, begins pushing. Allow students to push for about 30
seconds. Ask the following questions: “What did you feel when
your partner pushed against your hand?” (pushing on my
hands) “What did you do?” (I had to push back.)
“What would happen if you did nothing?” (I would be
pushed back or pushed down.) Now ask students to hold each others
hand and pull. Allow students to pull for about 30 seconds. Ask the
following questions: “What did you feel when your partner pulled
against your hand?” (pulling on my hands) “What did
you do?” (I had to pull back.) “What would happen
if you did nothing?” (I would be pulled forward.)
Write the word force on the board or
chart. Ask students if they can define this word. Allow students to
develop a working definition of force as a push or a pull. Add
to this definition: “which can cause an object to speed up, slow
down, or change direction.”
Ask students if there was a force used when
they placed their hands on their partners. (Yes, we pushed and
pulled.) Tell students they were applying or using force. Draw
two arrows on a chart or board. Ask students: “If I wanted to
show a force such as a push or a pull, how could I use the arrows to
do that?” Students should conclude that the arrows could be
used to show the direction of the force that is being applied.
Distribute copies of the Hunting for a Force
worksheet (S-2-2-1_Hunting for a Force.doc).
Tell students they will be taking a field investigation around the
school and outside to locate examples of a push or pull force. They
are to identify the example and circle the arrow that indicated the
direction of the force being applied. Note: Preview the area
you will be taking students so that examples can be found easily for
them. Areas may be marked if students need practice identifying
Give students copies of The Force worksheet
(S-2-2-1_The Force.doc) and have them
Activity 2, Day 2
Review with students the term force
and how we identify a force that is applied to an object.
Tell students they will investigate the
change that occurs when a force, such as a push or a pull, is applied
to an object. Give a few examples such as pushing someone on a swing
or pushing a shopping cart. Be sure to go over safety procedures with
students and remind students that goggles should be worn at all times
during this investigation.
Hand out copies of the Cotton Ball Launcher
worksheet (S-2-2-1_Cotton Ball Launcher.doc).
Divide students into groups of four. Give each group two large paper
clips and two small paper clips. Note: You may prepare the
paper clips if you feel students will not be able to do this
independently. Prepare each clip to become a launcher by pulling the
inside of the clip out to form a “V” shape. Place the large part
of one clip down and tape it to the table so that the small loop is
Take the other large clip and tape the small
loop to the table or floor so that the large loop is up.
Tell students they are to determine who will
launch the larger clips and the smaller clips. Students who are not
launching will measure and record the data on the investigation
sheet. Tell students to place the cotton ball on the “launcher”
part of each large paper clip. Pull or push the launcher clip down
and release. Launch the cotton ball, measure, and record the
distance. Repeat the launch three times and record measurements.
how the cotton ball should be launched and measured for students.
Note: Two paper clips will be taped to the table. One will be taped by the larger section and the other by the smaller section.
this investigation with the two smaller clips.
the data from other group members and make two charts displaying the
data. Discuss results with students. Have students draw conclusions
about their results.
For students who may be going beyond the
Have students design their own launchers. Then they launch
cotton balls, or other material record measurements, and compare
data with other students.
Create a bar graph to display the results.
- For students who might need opportunities for additional